Biographies of Crown Forces Generals
Commanding Troop Units

© 2001-2002 John K. Robertson and Don Hagist


BRITISH GENERALS

James Agnew        John Burgoyne

John Campbell       Sir Guy Carleton

Thomas Clarke       Samuel Cleaveland       Sir Henry Clinton

Charles, Lord Cornwallis       Sir William Erskine       Simon Fraser       Thomas Gage

James Grant      Sir Charles Grey

Frederick Haldimand       James Hamilton       Sir William Howe

Daniel Jones       Valentine Jones

Alexander Leslie       von Loos       Francis McLean       James Marsh

Edward Mathew       Charles O'Hara

James Paterson       James Pattison       Hugh, Earl Percy

William Phillips       Robert Pigot

Henry W. Powell       Richard Prescott       Augustine Prevost

James Robertson       Francis Smith

Thomas Stirling       William Tryon        John Vaughan


GERMAN GENERALS

Karl Emil Ulrich von Donop       W. R. von Gall       Leopold Philip de Heister       Baron Wilhelm von Knyphausen

Werner D. Mirbach       Baron Friederich von Riedesel

M. Conrad Schmitt       Johann Friederich Specht       Johann David Stirn

Trombach


LOYALIST (PROVINCIAL) GENERALS

Benedict Arnold       Montford Browne       Oliver Delancy, Sr.       Cortland Skinner




General James Agnew

Born:

Died: 4 October 1777

Cause of Death: Battle wounds; Battle of Germantown

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:

March 1776: Commander of the composite Grenadier Battalion at Boston
4 April 1776: Promoted in America to Brigadier.
May 1776: Commander of the 4th Brigade at Halifax.
August 1776: Commander of the 2d Brigade at Staten Island and Long Island.
Winter 1776-77: Garrisoned Brunswick, NJ.
Summer 1777: Commander of the 4th Brigade on the Philadelphia Campaign.
Military Career after the AWI: N/A

Additional Information:




General Benedict Arnold

Born: Norwich, CT., 14 January 1741

Died: London, 14 June 1801

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

March 1758: Enlisted in a NY company; deserted.
March 1760: Enlisted; served in upper NY State; deserted.
1774: Elected Captain of militia in New Haven.
Military Career during the AWI:
April 1775: Seized the arsenal at New Haven; marched to Cambridge.
10 May 1775: With Ethan Allen, forced capitulation of Fort Ticonderoga
October 1775: Led the expedition up the Kennebec to Quebec
31 Dec 1775: Wounded assaulting Quebec.
Jan 1776: Promoted to Brigadier General.
Oct. 1776: Commanded the defeated America fleet at Valcour Island.
May 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
August 1777: Led relief expedition to lift the Siege at Fort Schuyler.
October 1777: Played a prominent role in the 1st and 2d Battles at Saratoga.
June 1778: Commander of Philadelphia.
Jan 1780: Court Martialed for irregularities as Commander in Philadelphia.
September 1780: Failed in an attempt to turn West Point over to the British.
         Commisioned a Brigadier on the Provincial establishment.
Dec 1780-Jan 1781: Led a raid against tidewater Virginia.
Sept. 1781: Led a raid against New London, CT.
Dec. 1781: Went to England.
Military Career after the AWI: N/A

Additional Information: Bio   History




General Montford Browne

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General John Burgoyne

Born: Middlesex, 4 February 1722

Died: London, 4 June 1792

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1740: Cornet in the 13th Light Dragoons.
1741: Purchased a Lieutenantcy in the 13th Dragoons.
1743: Purchased a Captaincy in the 13th Dragoons.
1746: Sold his commission.
1757: Took a commision as Captain in the 11th Dragoons.
May 1758: Became Capt. and Lt. Col. in the Coldstream Guards.
Aug 1759: Commander of a Light Horse (Cavalry) Regiment.
1761: Entered Parliament.
1762: Fought with his Regiment in Portugal. Temporary Promotion to Brigadier.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career during the AWI:
1775: In Boston for Bunker Hill, but with no Command.
1 Sept 1775: Promoted to Lieutenant-General in America.
1776: Brought reinforcements to Quebec, which broke the Siege.
         Under Carleton, cleared Americans from Canada.
1777: Commander of Expedition from Canada.
6 July 1777: Forced Americans to
         abandon Ticonderoga by moving cannons atop Mt. Defiance.
19 Sept. 1777: Won the Battle of Freeman's Farm.
7 Oct. 1777: Lost the Battle of Bemis Heights.
19 Oct. 1777: Surrended his Army to Gates at Saratoga.
1778: Paroled to England
1782: Commander in Chief, Ireland.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio    History




General John Campbell

Born:

Died: 1806

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

June 1745: Lieutenant in Loudoun's Highlanders.
1747: Flanders Camapign.
1 Oct 1747: Promoted to Captain.
9 Apr 1756 Appointed to the 42d Highlanders.
11 Jul 1759: Major of the 17th Foot.
1 Feb 1762: Promoted to Lt. Colonel and Commander of the regiment.
1762: Operations in Havanna and Martinico.
1 May 1763: Lt. Colonel of the 37th Foot.
Military Career during the AWI:
1776: Brought the 37th Foot to America.
1777-1778: Promoted to Brigadier in America
         and Commander of Staten Island.
Nov. 1778: Commander of West Florida.
19 Feb 1779: Promoted to Major-General in America.
9 May 1781: Captured and surrendered Pensacola to the Spanish.
Exchanged.
Sept 1781: Promoted to Lieutenant General in America .
Military Career after the AWI:
Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
28 Sept. 1787: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General Sir Guy Carleton, K.B.

Born: Strabane, 3 September 1724

Died: Maidenhead, 10 November 1808

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

21 May 1742: Entered the Army as an Ensign.
1745: Lieutenant.
1751: Transferred to 1st Foot Guards.
1757: Captain-Lieutenant and Lieut. Colonel of the Regiment.
1758: Served under Amherst at the capture of Louisburg.
1759: Wounded under Wolfe while capturing Quebec.
1761: Fought in France.
1762: Promoted to Colonel.
1766: Lt. Governor,of Quebec.
1767: Governor and Commander-in-Chief in Quebec.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career during the AWI:
November 1775: Withdrew from Montreal.
December 1775: Besieged in Quebec.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to General in America.
May 1776: Broke the Seige and pursued Americas back into New York.
October 1776: Defeated Arnold at Valcour Island.
June 1777: Supported Burgoyne's Expedition.
1778: Resigned as Governor of Quebec and returned to England.
29 Aug. 1779: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
1782: Succeeded Henry Clinton as Commander in America.
25 November 1783: Evacuated New York.
Military Career after the AWI:

1786-1796: Governor of Quebec
Additional Information: Bio    History




General Thomas Clarke

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Samuel Cleaveland

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
4 April 1776: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Sir Henry Clinton

Born: 16 April 1730

Died: Gibraltar, 23 December 1795

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Capt-Lt. in the New York militia.
1751: Liuetenant Coldstream Guards.
1758: Capt. and Lt. Colonel of the Grenadier Guards.
1760: Combat in the brigade of guards under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick.
24 Jun 1762: Promoted to Colonel.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Major-General.
July 1772- 1784: Member of Parliment.
Military Career during the AWI:
17 Jun. 1775: Led a column at Bunker Hill.
1 Sept. 1775: Promoted to Lt. General in America.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to General in America.
June 1776: Participated in the British attempt at Fort Sullivan.
August 1776: Distinguished himself at the Battle of Long Island.
Dec. 1776: Led the occupation of Newport.
early 1777: Returned to England. Knighted.
Aug. 1777: Commandant at New York.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Oct 1777: Led raid up the Hudson, capturing Forts Clinton & Montgomery.
May 1778: Commander-in-Chief in America, succeeding Howe.
June 1778: Battle of Monmouth.
1779: Raids into Virginia, Connecticut, and the capture of Stony Point.
1780: Siege of Charleston.
5 May 1782: Succeeded by Gen. Carleton. Returned to England.
Military Career after the AWI:
1790: Reelected to Parliament.
Oct. 1793: Promoted to General.
July 1794: Appointed Governor of Gibraltar.
Additional Information: Bio    History




General Charles, Lord Cornwallis

Born: 1738

Died: India, 5 Oct. 1805

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1756: Ensign: Grenadier Guards.
1758: Served on Granby's staff.
1 Aug. 1759: Battle of Minden.
Aug. 1759: Promoted to Captain, 85th Regiment.
Jan. 1760: Member of Parliament.
1 May 1760: Promoted to Lt. Colonel, 12th Regiment.
15 Jul 1761: Regiment engaged at Vellinghausen.
Jun. 1762: Became Earl Cornwallis on the death of his father.
Aug. 1765: A.D.C. to the King.
29 Sept. 1775: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Lieutenant-General in America.
May 1776: Joined Clinton off Cape Fear; no part in attempt on Fort Sullivan.
22 Aug. 1776: Led landing on Long Island, and Commanded the reserve at the Battle.
15 Sept 1776: Commanded the assault troops at Kips Bay.
18 Nov 1776: Narrowly missed trapping rebel army at Fort Lee.
3 Jan 1777: Defeated by Washington at Princeton.
Spring 1777 Returned to England.
26 June 1777: Short Hills.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Aug. 1777: Philadelphia Campaign.
Jan. 1778: Returned to England.
June 1778: Monmouth.
Dec. 1778. Returned to England.
Spring 1780: Charleston Expedition.
June 1780: Commander in South Carolina and Georgia.
Jul-Aug. 1780: Defeated Gates at Camden.
17 Jan. 1781: Cowpens.
15 March 1781: Guilford Courthouse.
Spring-Summer 1781: Chased Lafayette in Virginia.
October 1781: The Siege of Yorktown, which resulted in his surrender.
Paroled.
May 1782: Exchanged for Henry Laurens.
Military Career after the AWI:
23 Feb 1786: Governor General in India.
1793: 1st Marquess Cornwallis.
Feb. 1794: Returned to England.
11 Feb. 1797: Governor General and C-in-C of Ireland.
1805: Returned to India as Governor General.
Additional Information: Bio    History




General Oliver Delancey, Sr.

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Sir William Erskine

Born: Edinburgh, March 1728

Died: 9 March 1795

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1743: Entered the Scots Grays.
1745: Cornet at Fontenoy.
1759: Major of the 15th Light Dragoons in Germany.
1762: Promoted to Lieut. Colonel.
1763: Knighted.
Military Career during the AWI:
Aug. 1776: Commanded the 7th Brigade at Long Island.
Apr. 1777: Second in command to Gen. Tryon on the Danbury Raid.
Aug. 1777: Commander 5th Brigade on the Philadelphia Campaign.
1778: Appointed as General Clinton's Quartermaster-General.
June 1778: Commander x Brigade at Monmouth.
Winter 1778-79: Commanded the eastern District of Long Island.
15 Feb. 1779: Promoted to Major-General. Returned to England.
Military Career after the AWI:
1787: Promoted to Lieut. General.
1791: Baronet.
1793-5: Second in command to the Duke of York at Flanders.
Additional Information: Bio




General Simon Fraser

Born: 1729

Died: 8 October 1777

Cause of Death: Battle wounds, Battle of Bemis Heights.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1748: Dutch Service.
31 Jan 1755: Lieutenant in the 62d Royal Americans.
Jan. 1757: Captain-Lieutenant in Fraser Highlanders.
Fought at Louisburg, Cape Breton, and Quebec.
22 Apr 1759: Promoted to Captain.
Staff Officer in Germany.
8 Feb. 1762: Promoted to major in the 24th Foot.
Served at Gibraltar and in Ireland with 24th.
1768: Lt. Colonel of the 24th Foot.
1770: Quartermaster General in Ireland.
Military Career during the AWI:
28 May 1776: Arrived at Quebec with the 24th Regiment.
1776: Commanded a brigade in Carleton's Campaign.
June 1777: Commanded Burgoyne's Advance Corps.
19 September 1777: Battle of Freeman's Farm.
7 October 1777: Battle of Bemis Heights.
Military Career after the AWI:
N/A
Additional Information: Bio




General Honourable Thomas Gage

Born: 1719?

Died: 2 Apr. 1787

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

< 1740: Commisioned Ensign.
Jan 1743: Promoted to Captain.
1745: A.D.C. to Albemarle at Fontenoy and Culloden.
1747-48: Campaigns in the Low Countries.
1748: transferred to the 55th Regiment (renumbered the 44th).
1748: Promoted to Major.
2 Mar 1751: Promoted to Lt. Colonel.
1754: Brought his Regiment to America.
9 Jul 1755: Commanded the Advanced Guard on Braddock's Expedtion.
1756: Led an unsuccessful expedition up the Mohawk River.
Dec. 1757: Formed the first Light-armed Regiment, the 80th.
1758: Wounded leading Abercromby's advanced guard against Ticonderoga.
1758: Commander at Albany; Temporary promotion to Brigadier.
Jul. 1759: Led column on Lake Ontario; failed to seize Fort La Galette.
Winter 1759-60: Commander at Albany.
1760: Commanded Amherst's rear guard from Oswego to Montreal.
6 Sept. 1760: Military Governor of Montreal.
1761: Promoted to Major-General.
1762: On Amherst's departure was named acting C-in-C of the British Army in America.
16 Nov. 1763: Moved to New York to assume duties as C-in-C.
Nov. 1764: Named as C-in-C, British Amry in North America.
30 April 1770: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Jun 1773: Returned to England on Leave of Absence.
Apr 1774: Appointed Governor of Massachusetts and remained C-in-C.
Military Career during the AWI:
19 Apr. 1775: Lexington and Concord.
17 June 1775: Bunker Hill.
26 Sept 1775: Called to England.
10 Oct 1775: Surrended command to Howe.
20 Nov 1782: Promoted to General.
Military Career after the AWI:
N/A
Additional Information: Bio




General W. R. von Gall

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Colonel, Regiment Erb-Prinz (Hesse-Hanu).
1777: Acting Brigadier.
May 1777: Commanded Brigade von Gall in Burgoyne's Expedition.
19 Oct 1777: Surrendered at Saratoga.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General George Garth

Born:

Died: 1819

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Sept. 1755: 1st Regiment of Footguards.
Military Career during the AWI:
Feb. 1779: Colonel.
July 1779: Brigade Commander, Connecticut Coast raid.
Sept. 1779: Appointed to Replace Prevost in Georgia.
         Captured by the French aboard the Experiment off Georgia.
Exchanged.
Served as Major-General in the West Indies.
Military Career after the AWI:
1801: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General James Grant

Born: 1720

Died: Ballindalloch, 13 April 1806

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1741: Obtained a commission. 24 Oct. 1744: Commisioned Captain, 1st Bn. Royal Scots.
Served at Fontenoy and Culloden.
1747-8: Flanders. Feb. 1757: Major, 77th (Montgomery) Highlanders.
21 Sept 1758: Led his Advanced Det. into ambush near Ft. Dusquene; made prisoner.
1760: Lt. Colonel of 40th Foot and appointed Governor of Florida.
1761: Led the Successful Cherokee Expedition.
1764-1771: Governor of Florida.
1772: Commander 40th Foot, Ireland.
1773: Member of Parliament.
Military Career during the AWI:
1775: Commanded the 5th Brigade at Boston.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major-General in America.
Aug. 1776: Commanded the 4th Brigade at the Battle of Long Island.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
Aug. 1777: Commanded the 2d Brigade on the Philadelphia Campaign.
20 May 1778: Led the unsucessful attempt to capture Lafayette at Barren Hill.
June 1778: Commanded a brigade at Monmouth.
Dec. 1778: Led an expedition to the West Indies, capturing St. Lucia.
1 Aug. 1779: Returned to England.
1782: Promoted to Lieuteneant-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
1796: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General Charles Grey

Born: Howick, 1729

Died: Howick, 14 Nov 1807

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1748: Ensign.
23 Dec. 1752: Lieutenant of the 6th Regiment at Gibraltar.
21 Mar 1755: Captain of an independent company; subsequently brought into 20th Foot.
1757: Rochefort expedition. 1 Aug. 1759: Wounded at Minden while A.D.C. to Prince Ferdinand.
14 Oct. 1760: Light Company at Campen.
21 Jan 1761: Lt. Colonel of the 98th Foot; at siege of Belle Isle.
1762: Siege of Havana.
1763: Retired on half-pay.
1772: Colonel and A.D.C. to the King.
Military Career during the AWI:
1776: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
4 Mar 1777: Promoted to Major General in America.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
21 Sept 1777: Led surprise night attack at Paoli, earning nickname: No Flint.
4 Oct 1777: Commander 3d Brigade at Germantown.
Sept. 1778: Led Raids at Bedford and Martha's Vineyard, and again at Tappan.
1778: Promoted to Major-General.
Returned to England.
1782: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
1793: Led relief expedition at Nieuport.
1794: West Indies.
Nov. 1794: Returned to England; promoted to General.
1798-99: Commander of the Southern District.
1799: Retired.
1801: Baron Grey de Howick.
1806: Viscount Howick, and Earl Grey.
Additional Information: Bio




General Frederick Haldimand

Born: Neufchatel, Switzerland, Oct. 1718

Died:Yverdun, Switzerland, 5 June 1791

Cause of Death:Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Served in the Sardinian Army against the Spanish in Italy.
1 July 1750: Lt. Colonel in the Regt. of Swiss Guards in the Dutch service.
4 Jan. 1756: Appointed Lt. Colonel of the 62d Royal Americans, raised in the colonies.
17 Jan 1758: Colonel in America.
8 July 1758: Fought at Ticonderoga.
1759: Defended Oswego against the French and Indians.
1760: Served under Amherst against Montreal.
1760-1766: Commandant of Three Rivers.
19 Feb. 1762: Promoted to Colonel.
1766-1778: Commander in Florida.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Major-General in America.
1773-75: Commanded at New York during the absence of Gage.
Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to General in America.
1776: Commander in East Florida.
29 Aug. 1777: Lieutenant General.
27 June 1778- Nov. 1784: Replaced Carleton as Governor of Quebec and Commander-in-Chief in Canada.
Military Career after the AWI:
1784: Returned to England.
Additional Information: Bio




General James Hamilton

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Lt. Colonel, 21st Foot.
1777: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
May 1777: Commanded 1st Brigade in Burgoyne's Expedition.
6 Jul 1777: Commander of Fort Ticonderoga; relieved by Powell 9 Aug.
Sept. 1777: Commanded a brigade at Freeman's Farm.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Leopold Philip de Heister

Born: 1707

Died: 19 Nov. 1777

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
late May 1776: Sailed from Spithead with the 1st Hessian Contingent.
early July 1776: Arrived at Staten Island.
Aug. 1776: Commanded the center of the British line at Long Island.
28 Oct 1776: Commanded the Germans at White Plains.
1777: Recalled to Hesse.
Military Career after the AWI:
N/A
Additional Information: Bio




General John Howard

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Sir William Howe

Born: 1729

Died: 1814

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

18 Sept. 1746: Cornet, Duke of Cumberland's Light Dragoons.
1747: Promoted to Lieutenant.
2 Jan. 1750: Transferred to the 20th Foot.
1 Jun. 1750: Promoted to Captain.
4 Jan 1756: Major of the 60th Regt (redesignated 58th Regiment).
17 Dec. 1759: Commisioned Lt. Colonel.
1760: Led regiment against Louisburg.
1761: Commanded a brigade in the siege of Belle Isle.
1762: Adjutant General of the Army that captured Havanna.
1768: Lt. Governor of the Isle of Wight.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career during the AWI:
17 June 1775: Commanded at the Battle of Bunker Hill.
10 Oct. 1775: Assumed command from Gage.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to General in America.
Apr. 1776: Named C-in-C of the Britsh Army in the 13 Colonies.
Aug. 1776: The New York Campaign.
Nov. 1776- Jan. 1777. The New Jersey Campaign.
Aug. 1777: The Philadelphia Campaign.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
May 1778: Resigned as C-in-C and returned to England; Succeeded by Clinton.
1782: Promoted to Lieutenant-General of the ordnance.
Military Career after the AWI:
23 Oct. 1793: Promoted to General.
1799: 5th Viscount Howe on death of his brother.
1803: Resigned his ordnance post.
Additional Information: Bio






General Daniel Jones

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Valentine Jones

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major-General in America.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Knyphausen

Born: Liitzberg, 4 Nov. 1716

Died: Cassel, 7 Dec. 1800

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1734: Entered Prussian Army.
Military Career during the AWI:
1775: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
18 Oct. 1776: Reached NY harbor with the 2d group of German mercenaries (Hessians and Waldeckers).
16 Nov. 1776: Led main attack at Fort Washington.
1777: Replaced Heister as C-in-C of German troops in America.
Aug. 1777: Led Division in the Philadelphia Campaign.
1780: Commander in New York during Clinton's absence.
1782: Retired due to loss of an eye, and ill health.
Military Career after the AWI:
Military Governor of Cassel.
Additional Information: Bio




General Honourable Alexander Leslie

Born: 1731

Died: Glasgow, 1794

Cause of Death: Blow received during a riot.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1753: Joined 3d Foot Guards.
1758: Senior Captain 64th Regiment.
28 Aug. 1766: Commander 64th Regiment.
Military Career during the AWI:
4 April 1776: Appointed Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty,
                   with rank of Colonel, and Brigadier in America
July 1776: Commander of the Light Infantry Brigade.
19 Feb. 1779: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
1787: Promoted to Lieutenant General.
Additional Information: Bio




General von Loos

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Francis McLean

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General James Marsh

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Edward Mathew

Born: 1729

Died: 1805

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1746: Ensign Coldstream Guards.
1775: Colonel and A.D.C. to the King.
Military Career during the AWI:
1776: As Brigadier brought the Brigade of Guards to America.
15 Sept 1776: Led landing at Kips Bay.
16 Nov. 1776: Took part in the capture of Fort Washington.
19 Feb. 1779: Promoted to Major-General.
May 1779: Led Mathew-Collier Raid to tidewater Virginia.
June 1780: Participated as a volunteer in Knyphausen's Springfield Raid.
1780: Returned to England.
Nov. 1782: Commander in Chief, West Indies.
Military Career after the AWI:
1797: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General Werner D. Mirbach

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Charles O'Hara

Born: 1740?

Died: Gibraltar, 21 February 1802

Cause of Death: Complications from old wounds.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

23 Dec 1752: Cornet, 3d Dragoons.
14 Jan 1756: Lieutenant and Captain, Coldstream Guards.
Served in Germany after Minden.
1762: Quartermaster General of the troops in Portugal.
25 Jul 1766: Liuetenant Colonel, Commandant of the African corps, Goree, Senegal.
1769: Captain and Lt. Colonel, Coldstream Guards
Military Career during the AWI:
Jul 1778: Commander Sandy Hook.
October 1780: Commander, Brigade of Guards.
1 Feb 1781: Led attack at Cowan's Ford.
15 Mar 1781: Led 2d Bn of Guards at Guilford Court House.
Surrendered at Yorktown.
Appointed Major-General.
9 Feb 1782: Exchanged. Returned to England.
Military Career after the AWI:
1787-1790: Staff at Gibraltar.
1792: Appointed Lt. Governor of Gibraltar.
1793: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
23 Nov. 1793: Captured at Fort Mulgrove, Toulon.
Aug. 1795: Exchanged for Rochambeau
1795: Appointed Governor of Gibraltar.
1798: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General James Paterson

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
18 April 1776: Adjutant General in America.
June 1778: sent to England with Clinton's dispatches.
1 June 1779: Brigadier. Commanded British forces at the capture of Stony Point.
Promoted to Major General in America.
1780: part of the expedition to Charlestown, SC.
1780-1783: Commander of Staten Island garrison.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General James Pattison

Born: 1724

Died: 1805

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
25 Apr 1777: Proomoted to Colonel, Royal Artillery.
24 Sept 1777: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
19 Feb 1779: Promoted to Major General.
June 1779: Assisted in operations against Stony Point and Verplanck's Point.
Commandant of New York City.
4 Sept. 1780: Returned to England.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Hugh, Earl Percy

Born: 28 August 1742

Died: 10 July 1817

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1 May 1759: Ensign, 24th Foot.
6 Aug. 1759: Captain, 85th Foot.
16 Apr. 1762: Lt. Colonel, commanding 111th Regiment at Bergen and Minden.
1762: Captain and Lieutenant Colonel, Grenadier Guards.
15 mar. 1763: Member of Parliament.
26 Oct. 1764: Colonel and A.D.C. to the King.
1774: Went to Boston as a Brigadier.
Military Career during the AWI:
19 April 1775: Led relief column for Col. Francis Smith's column.
11 July 1775: Promoted to Major-General in America.
29 Sept. 1775: Promoted to Major-General.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Lieutenant-General in America.
26 Mar. 1776: Promoted to General in America.
26 Aug. 1776: Commanded a Division at the battle of Long Island.
16 Nov 1776: Commanded a Division at Fort Washington.
Dec 1776: Served with Clinton in the capture of Rhode Island.
June 1777: Recalled to England.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
2 Nov. 1784: Command of the 2d Troop of horse grenadier guards.
1786: Duke of Northumberland.
9 April 1788: Received the Garter. June 1788: transferred to the 2d Lifeguards.
12 Oct. 1793: Promoted to General.
1798: Command of the Percy yeomanry regiment.
Additional Information: Bio




General William Phillips

Born: 1731?

Died: Petersburg, 13 May 1781

Cause of Death: Typhoid Fever.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1 Aug. 1746: appointed gentlemen Cadet at Woolrich.
2 Jan. 1747: Lieutenant Fireworker.
Apr. 1750-May 1756: Quarter Master of the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
1 Mar. 1755: Promoted to 2d Lieutenant.
1 Apr. 1756: Promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
12 May 1756: Captain in the Army, and Commander of a company of miners for Minorca.
1756: Drafted into the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
1758: Promoted to Captain. Led a brigade of artillery in Germany.
1 Aug. 1759: Battle of Minden.
30 Jul 1760: At battle of Warburg.
15 Aug. 1760: Promoted to Lt. Colonel in the Army.
25 May 1772: Promoted to Colonel in the Army.
Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Jul-Dec 1776: Commander at St. Johns.
25 April 1777: Promoted to Major in the Royal Artillery Regiment.
May 1777: Second in Command to Burgoyne.
2-5 July 1777: Aided in the capture of Ticonderoga.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
19 Oct. 1777: Surrendered at Saratoga.
Nov. 1779: Paroled to New York.
6 july 1780: Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Artillery regiment.
13 Oct 1780: Exchanged for General Lincoln.
Spring 1781: Led force to Virginia, and took Command there.
Military Career after the AWI:
N/A
Additional Information: Bio




General Robert Pigot

Born: Patshull, 1720

Died: Patshull, 2 Aug. 1796

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1745: Fought at Fontenoy in the 31st Foot.
1749-1752: Fought in Minorca and Scotland.
31 Oct. 1751: Promoted to Captain.
5 May 1758: Promoted to Major.
1758: Transferred to the 70th Regiment.
1 Oct 1764: Lt. Colonel, 38th Foot.
Jul 1774: Brought 38th Foot to Boston.
Military Career during the AWI:
17 June 1775: Led 2d Brigade at Bunker Hill.
11 Dec 1775: Promoted to Colonel.
16 July 1776: Commander 3d Brigade at Boston.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Aug. 1776: Commander, 2d Brigade at Long Island.
1777-1779: Commander of Rhode Island.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
29 Jul - 31 Aug 1778: Successfully defended Newport.
1778: Suceeded his brother as second baronet, lord Pigot of Patshull.
20 Nov 1782: Promoted to Lieutenant General.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Henry Powell

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Lt. Colonel, 53d Foot.
1777: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
May 1777: Commanded 2d Brigade in Burgoyne's Expedition.
9 Aug. 1777: Commander of Fort Ticonderoga.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Richard Prescott

Born: 1725

Died: 1788

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

20 Dec. 1756: Major, 33d Foot.
May 1762: Lt. Colonel, 50th Foot.
Served in Germany.
Military Career during the AWI:
17 Nov 1775: Brigadier. Captured attempting to escapr from Montreal to Quebec.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
~25 Sept. 1776: Exchanged for General Sulivan.
Dec. 1776: Participated in occupation of Newport; Garrison Commander.
9 July 1777: Captured by William Barton at Overing House in Portsmouth, RI.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
6 May 1778: Exchanged for General Charles Lee.
29 Aug. 1778: Commanded a brigade in the Battle of Rhode Island.
August 1779: Succeeded Pigot as Commander of Rhode Island Garrison.
Oct. 1779: Evacuated the Garrison to New York.
26 Nov. 1782: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Augustine Prevost

Born: Geneva, 22 Aug. 1723

Died: 1786

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

9 Jan. 1756: Major, 60th Foot.
1759: Served under Wolfe at Quebec.
20 Mar. 1761: Promoted to Lt. Colonel.
18 Sept. 1775: Promoted to Colonel, 4th Battalion, 60th Regiment.
Military Career during the AWI:
1775: Commander, British forces in East Florida.
Fall 1778: Moved north, to support the attack on Savannah.
19 Feb. 1779: Promoted to Major-General in America.
14 Feb. 1779: Victory at Briar Creek.
9 Oct. 1779: Defence of Savannah against a Franco-American force.
Oct. 1779: Returned to England.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Baron Friederich Adolphus von Riedesel

Born: 1738

Died: 7 Jan. 1800

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

< 1756: Commisioned Ensign in the Hessian Battalion at Marburg.
1756: Went o England with a German Regiment under George II.
1757: A.D.C. to Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick.
Aug. 1759: Battle of Minden.
1775: Colonel od carabineers, commanding the garrison at Wolfenbuttel.
Military Career during the AWI:
10 Jan 1776: Named commander of the 1st Brunswick contingent destined for America.
4 Apr. 1776: Embarked for America from Dover.
1 Jun 1776: Joined Carleton at Quebec.
June 1777: Commanded the Left Division of Burgoyne's Expedition from Canada.
7 Jul 1777: Distinguished himself at Hubbardton.
19 Oct 1777: Surrended with Burgoyne's Army at Saratoga.
13 Oct. 1780: He and Phillips were exchanged for Gen. Lincoln.
1781: Promoted to Lieutenant-General in America.
Sept. 1781: Ordered to Canada; carried a Clinton plan for an invasion fron the North.
mid-Aug. 1783: Sailed for England.
8 Oct. 1783: Led his troops for review by the new Duke of Brunswick.
Military Career after the AWI:
1787-1793: Promoted to Lieutenant-General, commander of Brunswick troops in southern provinces of Holland. 1793: Recalled from retirement to become Commandant of the city of Brunswick.
Additional Information: Bio




General James Robertson

Born: County Fife, Scotland, 29 June 1717.

Died: London, 4 March 1788

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Enlisted as a private; promoted to sergeant.
1739: Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant, Colonel William Robinson's regiment of Marines.
1745-46: Service in the Jacobite uprisings.
1746: Captain, 30th Regiment.
1756: Came to America as Major in the 60th Regiment, Royal Americans.
1757: Appointed Deputy Quarter Master General, America.
1765: Appointed Barrack Master General, America.
Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Aug. 1776: Commanded a brigade at Long Island.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
May 1779: Appointed civil Governor of New York.
May 1781: Commander-in-Chief in Virginia.
20 Nov. 1782: Promoted to Lieutenant General.

Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General M. Conrad Schmitt

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Cortland Skinner

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Attorney General, Colony of New Jersey
Military Career during the AWI:
4 Sept. 1776: Commissioned a Brigadier General.
Dec. 1776: Sucessfully completed the raisng of 6 battalions,
which formed the New Jersey Volunteers Regiment.
1777: Attempted to reorganize the Monmouth County Militia; Commissioned by Royal Governor, Major General of Militia.
1778-1782: Given Command of Staten Island for some periods.
1782: Commander of Paulus Hook.
1782: Left for England.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Francis Smith

Born: 1723

Died: 1791

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

25 Apr 1741: Lieutenant, Royal Fusileers.
23 Jun 1747: Captain, 10th Foot.
Feb 1762: Lt. Colonel, 10th Foot.
1767: Brought 10th Foot to America.
Military Career during the AWI:
19 Apr 1775: Led raid on Lexington and Concord.
1775: Promoted to Colonel and A.D.C. to the King.
1776: Promoted to Brigadier in America.
Mar. 1776: Dorchester Heights.
Aug. 1776: Commanded the 5th Brigade at Long Island.
Aug. 1778: Commanded a brigade at Battle of Rhode Island.
1778: Regiment drafted, officers returned to England.
1779: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
1787: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Additional Information: Bio




General Johann Friederich Specht

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Colonel, Regiment von Specht (Brunswick).
1777: Acting Brigadier.
May 1777: Commanded Brigade von Specht in Burgoyne's Expedition.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Thomas Stirling

Born: 8 Oct. 1733

Died: Strowan, 8 May 1808

Cause of Death: Natural causes.

Military Career prior to the AWI:

11 Oct. 1747: Commision from the Prince of Orange.
Served 10 years in the Scots brigade on Dutch Service.
24 Mar. 1757: Captain in the 42d Highlanders.
Served in Canada, Martinique(1759), and Havanna(1762).
1765: Sent to take possesion of the Illinois country.
1767: Returned to England.
12 Dec. 1770: Promoted to Major.
7 Sept. 1771: Promoted to Lieuentant Colonel.
Military Career during the AWI:
1776: Brought his Regiment to New York.
16 Nov. 1776: At capture of Fort Washington.
Feb. 1779: Captured Elizabethtown.
19 Feb. 1779: Appointed Aide de Camp to the King, and promoted to Colonel.
18 July 1779: Led relief force to aid of Fort Lafayette.
mid-July to mid-Sept. 1779: Commander at Stony and Verplanck's Points.
June 1780: Commanded a brigade at Springfield, NJ.
20 Nov. 1782: Promoted to Major-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
3 May 1796: Promoted to Lieutenant General.
26 July 1799: Succeeded to the baoretcy of Ardoch.
1 Jan 1801: Promoted to General.
Additional Information: Bio




General Johann David Stirn

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General Trombach

Born:

Died:

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

Military Career during the AWI:
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information:




General William Tryon

Born: 1729

Died: 1788

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

1751: Lieutenant of the 1st Regt. of Foot Guards.
1764: Appointed Lt. Governor of North Carolina.
1765: Governor of North Carolina.
16 May 1771: Defeated the Regulators at Alamance.
July 1771: Appointed Governor of New York.
April 1774: Returned to England.
Military Career during the AWI:
June 1775: Returned to New York.
Oct 1775: Took refuge aboard a British ship.
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Apr. 1777: Led the Danbury Raid.
29 Aug. 1777: Promoted to Major General.
9 Oct 1777: Destroyed Continental Village on Clinton's Hudson Raid.
July 1779: Led the Connecticut Coast Raid.
4 Sept. 1780: Returned to England due to poor health.
1782: Promoted to Lieutenant-General.
Military Career after the AWI:
Additional Information: Bio




General Honourable John Vaughan

Born:

Died: Martinique, 3 June 1795

Cause of Death:

Military Career prior to the AWI:

9th Marine regiment.
9 Apr 1748: Cornet in the 10th Dragoons.
28 Jan 1755: Promoted to Captain of 10th Dragoons in Germany.
15 Oct. 1759: Commisioned Major in the 94th (Royal Welsh Volunteers).
12 Jan. 1760: Promoted to Lt. Colonel commandant.
1761: Commander of a grenadier division in Martinique.
1764: Became Lt. Colonel of the 46th Foot when the 94th was disbanded.
1767: Moved regiment to Ireland.
May 1772: Promoted to Colonel.
1774-1793: Member of Parliament.
Military Career during the AWI:
1 Jan 1776: Promoted to Major General in America.
Jun 1776: Charleston Expedition.
Aug. 1776: Commanded the grenadiers at the Battle of Long Island.
Oct. 1776: wounded at White Plains.
Winter 1776-77: Returned to England.
29 Aug 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
6 Oct 1777: Led assault on Fort Montgomery.
12-24 Oct 1777: Commanded troops on raid up the Hudson, burning Kingston.
1 June 1779: Captured Verplanck's Point.
Winter 1779: Returned to England.
Dec. 1779: Named Commander of the Leeward Islands.
1781: Led unsuccessful attack on St. Vincent.
3 Feb 1782: Captured St. Eustatius.
Military Career after the AWI:
1793: Knighted.
Additional Information: Bio




Last updated: 25 August 2002
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adiers at the Battle of Long Island.
Oct. 1776: wounded at White Plains.
Winter 1776-77: Returned to England.
29 Aug 1777: Promoted to Major-General.
6 Oct 1777: Led assault on Fort Montgomery.
12-24 Oct 1777: Commanded troops on raid up the Hudson, burning Kingston.
1 June 1779: Captured Verplanck's Point.
Winter 1779: Returned to England.
Dec. 1779: Named Commander of the Leeward Islands.
1781: Led unsuccessful attack on St. Vincent.
3 Feb 1782: Captured St. Eustatius.
Military Career after the AWI:
1793: Knighted.
Additional Information: Bio




Last updated: 6 June 2007
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